Tuesday, May 24, 2016

More problems for the Duke of Castro.

This letter is in Italian. The writer of this letter is Claudio Limontini, former Grand Treasurer of the Constantinian Order, headed by the Duke of Castrol. He discusses why he resigned due to serious financial irregularities that he discovered during his tenure in his former position. He also returned the Collar from the Order. He expressed his unhappiness with how some of the Order's funds were being used. The funds were supposed to be used for the sick and the poor. When he made known his concerns, he was relieved of his position. In this letter, he also agrees with comments recently made by Princess Tana of Windsich-Graetz and her husband, Prince Augusto Ruffi di Calabria, who recently stepped down as Grand Prefect of the Order, headed by the Duke of Castro. Princess Tana (whose full name is Irma Christiane Leontine Maximiliane is the elder sister of Mariano Hugo, Prince of Windisch-Graetz, who is married to Archduchess Sophie of Austria. Her younger sister, Maximiliane is the wife of the Prince of Fürstenberg. ü

Perhaps an engagement ....

I may be going out on a wiggly limb, but this is an interesting photo, which was taken yesterday at the Chelsea Flower Show. A good royal turnout - from the Queen to the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge as well as the Princess Royal and Princess Beatrice and Eugenie of York. In this Getty image, you can see Beatrice walking in the background as her younger sister, Eugenie, walks with her long time main squeeze, Jack Brooksbank.   As Jack accompanied Princess Eugenie to an event which included other members of the Royal Family,  one wonders if an engagement announcement will soon be made.   Jack's family tree is filled with English and Scottish noble lines, and a few European noble and royal branches as well.  He is descendant of Edward III through John of Gaunt and Katherine Roet, just for starters.

Jack is eldest son of George Edward Hugh Brooksbank and Nicola Newton. Jack's paternal grandmother, Celia Dorothy Coke, was the granddaughter of the 2nd Earl of Leicester, whose wife, the Hon. Georgina Cavendish, was the daughter of William Cavendish, 2nd Baron Chesham and Henrietta Frances Lascelles, a daugher of the Rt Hon. William Saunders Sebright Lascelles, who was the third son of the 2nd Earl of Harewood, and who married the Lady Caroline Howard, the daughter of George Howard, 6th Earl of Carlisle, and Lady Georgiana Cavendish, daughter of William Cavendish, 5th Duke of Devonshire and Lady Georgiana Spencer, who was the daughter of John Spencer, 1st Earl Spencer and Margaret Georgiana Poyntz.

 The first Earl Spencer was the son of the Hon. John Spencer and Lady Georgiana Carteret, daughter of the Earl of Granville. John Spencer was the son of Charles Spencer, 3rd Earl of Sunderland, and his second wife, Lady Anne Churchill, daughter of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough. John had two sisters, and the youngest was the Lady Diana Spencer, who was once linked to Frederick, Prince of Wales (father of George III).

 The second Baron Chesham wsa the son of Charles Compton Cavendish and Lady Catherine Gordon, the daughter of George Gordon, 9th Earl of Huntly, and Catherine Cope. The 9th Earl's mother, Lady Margaret, was the daughter of Alexander Stewart, 6th Earl of Galloway and Lady Catherine Cochrane, daughter of the 4th Earl of Dundonald and Lady Anne Murray (daughter of 1st Earl of Dunmore, the son of John Murray, 1st Marquess of Athole and Lady Amelia Stanley, daughter of the 1st Earl of Derby and Charlotte de la Trémoille.) Charlotte de la Trémoille was the daughter of Claude de la Trémoille, Duke of Thouars, and Charlotte of Nassau-Dillenberg, daughter of Willem I, 1st Count of Nassau-Dillenberg, Count of Vianden, 2nd Prince of Orange and Princess Charlotte of Bourbon-Vendome Hmm a Bourbon connection, as Princess

Charlotte was the daughter of Louis II de Bourbon, Duke of Montpensier. The Stewart connection - through Lady Margaret Stewart - brings us to her father, Alexander Stewart, 6th of Galloway, who was the son of James Stewart, the 5th Earl of Galloway, and Lady Catherine Montgomerie, daughter of the 9th Earl of Eglington. The 4th earl of Galloway, James Stewart, was the son of Alexander, the 3rd Earl and Lady Mary Douglas, daughter of James Douglas, 2nd Earl of Queensberry, and Lady Margaret Stewart. The ancestors of these lines includes historic noble families of Scotland. Among Jack's ancestors is Lady Joan Beaufort, daughter of John de Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset and Lady Margaret de Holand. Lady Joan was the granddaughter of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, and his third wife, Katherine Roet. [John of Gaunt was a son of Edward III.] Jack also descends from Mary Stewart, Princess of Scotland, daughter of James II Stewart, King of Scotland and Marie van Egmont-Gelre. 

The descent is through her second marriage to James Hamilton, 1st Lord Hamilton. Their son, James, 1st Earl of Arran, had a daughter, Margaret, by Beatrix Drummond. Margaret married Andrew Stewart, 1st Lord Stewart of Ochiltree. Andrew's son, Andrew, married Margaret Stewart, daughter of Henry Stewart, 2nd Lord Methven. Their daughter, Margaret married John Stewart of Traquair. They had one son, James, 1st Earl of Traquair, who married Lady Catherine Carnegie, daughter of 1st Earl of Southesk. Their daughter, Lady Margaret, married James Douglas, 2nd Earl of Queensberry, and their daughter,

Lady Mary Douglas married Alexander Stewart, 3rd Earl of Galloway. The descent from the earls of Galloway is through the 6th Earl and his wife, Lady Catherine Cochrane's second daughter Lady Margaret, who married Charles Gordon, 4th Earl of Aboyne. Their son was Charles Gordon, 9th Marquess of Huntly.

 Jack Brooksbank was born May 3, 1986.  He attended Stowe.   He met Princess Eugenie in early 2010, when he was working as a barman in a London restaurant.  He was introduced to her mother and older sister during a holiday in France that summer.   Jack told the Daily Mail in August 2010 that they met "through friends," most likely in Verbier, Switzerland.  Eugenie was in Switzerland celebrating her father's 50th birthday, and Jack was on vacation with several friends.

Jack's grandfather, Stamp Godfrey Brooksbank, was the thirdson of Lt. Col. Edward York Brooksbank, who was the son of Sir. Edward Clitherow Brooksbank, 1st Baronet.  This family descends from Stamp Brooksbank, MP for Colchester and Saltash, and was Governor of the Bank of England.  The Brooksbanks were a Yorkshire family, which an estate, Healaugh Manor, which the family lived in until the first world war.

His father, George, is a chartered accountant and company director.

 By coincidence, Jack was born on the same day as Poppy Delevigne, a British model, with impeccable social connections. Her mother, Pandora, is the daughter of Sir Jocelyn Stevens and Jane Sheffield, who served as Princess Margaret's lady-in-waiting for 23 years. Jack's parents were married on February 26, 1985 at the Guards Chapel, Wellington Barracks.

Monday, May 23, 2016

Discourse among the Bourbon-Two-Sicilies

It is not difficult to comprehend why the Duke of Castro would fiddle with the succession to the headship of the house of Bourbon-Two Sicilies and name his elder daughter,  Princess Maria Carolina, Duchess of Palermo,  as his heir, thus establishing a gender equal succession.   This would be all well and good if the Duke of Castro were the undisputed head of the house.  But he is not.  Many see the Duke of Calabria as the head of the house - and so it remains that there are two heads and two Grand Masters of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of St. George.



The Reconciliation document stated that Both sides trusting that Divine Providence will undertake to show the way to the dynastic unity of the Royal House of the Two Sicilies.”
“Both parties agree in the meantime to make their dynastic and family commitment to achieve a spirit of harmony and understanding not only between them but equally among their supporters, recognizing RESPECTIVELY AS COUSINS, THE TREATMENT AND TITLES ACTUALLY IN COMMON USE BETWEEN THE PARTIES AND THEIR DESCENDANTS, AND ACTING PUBLICLY TOGETHER AS ONE FAMILY.”

 The Duke of Castro, in his recent statement, spoke of the UN declaration of Rights, which calls for the equal rights of women.  Royal families, reigning or historical, are not governed by the a UN declaration.    < The Reconciliation agreement made no mention of the succession to the headship, but many came away with the impression that the two branches would and could work together to unite the Constantintian  Orders and, eventually move toward a full agreement on the succession restored to the Duke of Calabria's line. Perhaps the Duke of Castro was never fully committed to a reconciliation.

 On the evening of January 24, 2014,  the Duke and Duchess of Castro hosted a dinner, where Prince Jaime, then the Duke of Capua (now Duke of Noto) was asked to give a speech.  At the end of the evening, all the guests were given a gift bag which included a pamphlet that included a family tree.  Major faux pas (or intentional?)  as the family tree did not include Pedro's great-grandfather, Prince Carlos of Bourbon-Two Sicilies (1870-1949), who married Infanta Mercedes of Spain, elder sister of Alfonso XIII.  

A statement in the pamphlet declared that Prince Carlos' line had been excluded. The Duke of Noto and his family were said to be visibly upset by the statement, and he and his family were ready to walk out and return to Spain  A meeting was quickly arranged between the Duke of Noto and the Duke of Castro,  and they met for 90 minutes, where the Duke of Castro, apologized for the error.

The Duke of Castro's sister, Princess Beatrice, mother of Prince Jean Napoleon, supports her brother, but, so far there has been no statements from Princes Antonio and Francesco of Bourbon-Two Sicilies.  The Sacred Military Constantinian Order of St. George is the only international Roman Catholic order that has a hereditary Grand Master.   Only men can inherit  can be a Grand Master, not a female, as the Order is "regulated by Canon law."

 In response to the Duke of Castro's statement, the Order's Grand Prefect, Prince Augusto Ruffi di Calabria, stepped down, as did several other senior officials.

One can only wonder about the possible influence of the Duchess of Castro on her husband's decision to change the succession in favor of his elder of two daughters.  I also now think that the Duke of Castro never acted in good faith when he signed the reconciliation agreement.

Official statement from HRH The Duke of Calabria



          Following the declaration that my cousin Charles of Bourbon Two Sicilies, Duke of Castro, made on the 12 May 2016 in relation to the succession of the Royal House of the Two Sicilies and the headship of the Dynastic Orders, I, Pedro of Bourbon-Two Sicilies and Orléans, Duke of Calabria, Count of Caserta, Head of the Royal House of the Two Sicilies and Grand Master of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George, am obliged to state the following:

           Since the death of my father  H.R.H. Charles of Bourbon-Two Sicilies and Bourbon-Parma, Duke of Calabria, Count of Caserta, Infante of Spain, I am the Head of the Royal House of the Two Sicilies, Duke of Calabria, Count of Caserta, and my son Jaime is the Duke of Noto.

          Charles of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Duke of Castro, does not have the power to make any decision regarding the succession of the Royal House of the Two Sicilies nor to assume any other competence of the Head of the said Royal House, of which I am the head as the heir of the last sovereign of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.

          The decision taken by my cousin Charles is not within and contravenes the spirit of the agreement in the historic pact of family reconciliation signed in Naples on 25th January 2014 where it was decided to recognise the titles in use by both branches of the family, despite which I will consider my cousin to be Duke of Castro and his daughters to be Duchesses of Palermo and Capri.

     There is no means by which my cousin Charles is able to modify the rules of succession to the Grand Mastership of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George, of which I am Grand Master as First Born Farnese Primogeniture heir. 

        Neither can my cousin Charles decide anything regarding the Dynastic Orders or the Orders of the Ancient Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, of which as Head of the Royal House I hold the Headship.

     I am saddened at the unilateral decision my cousin Charles of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Duke of Castro, has taken, contravening the spirit of the cited Naples agreement and imposing a serious obstacle that interferes with the family peace and harmony that we have always desired.

     Finally, the agreement reached in Naples in 2014 and which I have always honoured, does not concern either the Headship of the Royal House of the Two Sicilies of which I am Head, or the Grand Mastership of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George of which I am Grand Master.

Madrid, 21st May 2016

Pedro of Bourbon-Two Sicilies

Duke of Calabria, Count of Caserta

Saturday, May 21, 2016

A lovely family group

Duke Karl Theodor in Bavaria with his family, including two of his daughters, Queen Elisabeth of Belgium and Princess Rupprecht (Marie Gabrielle), and his wife, Maria Josefa, who is trying to get the attention of Crown Prince Leopold of Belgium (1901-1983).  Marie Gabrielle is holding her first born child, Prince Luitpold of Bavaria (1901-1914.)

Friday, May 20, 2016

The Count of Paris on the succession

Prince Henri, Count of Paris, the Orléans pretender to the French throne, has given an exclusive interview to Point de Vue, telling them that at his death, he will be succeeded by his first born son, Prince Francois, Count of Clerment, who is 55-years-old.

Francois' mother, Duchess Marie Therese of Württemberg, suffered from toxoplasmosis during her pregnancy, which resulted in Prince Francois born with mental disabilities. This also happened during her pregnancy with Princess Blanche.

Prince Jean, Duke of Vendome,  51, will act as regent for his older brother.  He is already Prince Francois' legal guardian.

The Duke of Vendome's uncle, Prince Jacques, Duke of Orleans, and his elder son, Prince Charles Louis, Duke of Chartres will be the members of a regency council to assist the Duke of Vendome.

The Count of Paris will celebrate his 83rd birthday on June 14th.   He is largely estranged from his children, including the Duke of Vendome.

Amedeo and Elisabetta of Belgium leave hospital with newborn daughter.

Prince and Princess Amedeo of Belgium left the UMC Sint-Pieter hospital in Brussels earlier today with their two-day-old daughter, Anna Astrid.  Last November,  King Philippe issued a statement regarding the title Prince and Princess of Belgium, limiting the title to the children and grandchildren of the Sovereign and the Heir(ess) Apparent.

This means the grandchildren of Princess Astrid and Prince Laurent will not have a royal title.

Prince Amedeo is also an archduke of Austria as his father is Archduke Lorenz, but is styled in Belgium as HRH Prince Lorenz of Belgium, as he was created a Prince of Belgium by King Albert II on November 10, 1995.  

Astrid's children have the HRH and the title Prince or Princess of Belgium due to a decree on December 2, 1991.

Elisabetta, who is known as Lili, has not been created a Princess of Belgium in her own right.  Palace officials have never stated what her official title is, although the Palace's official announcement referred to Prince and Princess Amedeo of Belgium.

Anna Astrid will most likely be styled as HI & RH Archduchess Anna Astrid of Austria or perhaps  Anna Astrid de Belgique.   This also has not been announced.  While used socially and recognized among the European royal houses,  the archducal title has no legal status as Austria is a republic, and does not allow the use of titles, even as a part of one's surname.  She can also use the surname Habsburg-Lothringen.

Anna Astrid is the first grandchild for Princess Astrid and Prince Lorenz, and the first great-grandchild for King Albert II and Queen Paola.



Prince Alexander's funeral and burial

all photos courtesy of HRH Crown Prince Alexander

His Royal Highness Prince Alexander Karadjordjevic, the eldest son of Their Royal Highnesses Prince Paul and Princess Olga was buried today in the Saint George Church yard in Oplenac. Their Graces Bishop Jovan of Sumadija and Bishop Irinej of Australia and New Zealand officiated the funeral service at 10:30 am.

The solemn funeral was attended by Their Royal Highnesses Crown Prince Alexander, Crown Princess Katherine and Hereditary Prince Peter who was Prince Alexander’s Karadjordjevic’s godson and HE Mr. Tomislav Nikolic, President of Republic of Serbia.

Those were present HRH Princess Barbara, the widow of the late Prince, sons HRH Prince Michel, HRH Prince Serge and HRH Princess Eleonora and HRH Prince Dusan; sister HRH Princess Elizabeth,  Count Hans Veit Toerring-Jettenbach (the late Prince's first cousin, the son of Princess Elisabeth of Greece and Denmark)  HRH Princess Linda and HRH Prince George.

Also present were Mr Vladimir Bozovic, advisor to Prime Minister on behalf of Government of Serbia, General Ljubisa Dikovic, Chief of Staff of Army of Serbia, Mr. Dragan Zivanovic, Mayor of Topola, Mr. Dragan Jovanovic, president of Topola Municipal Assembly, and Mr. Dragan Reljic, director of King Peter I Foundation in Oplenac.

HRH Crown Prince Alexander ordered the removal of all state flags at the Royal Palace and the White Palace today in honour of the late Prince.

Thursday, May 19, 2016

Alfonso and Ena's wedding will be a grand affair

May 19, 1906

Madrid is "rapidly putting on gala attire" as the city anticipates the upcoming marriage of King Alfonso XIII and Princess Ena of Battenberg, reports the Los Angeles Times.

The wedding will take place on May 31.  "Superb" street decorations are appearing throughout the city and "parks and other public places are being transformed into luxurious gardens," as thousands of "palm trees and rosebushes" are being planted.

Florists in the Canary Islands have been ordered to "supply 1200 tons of flowers for the Plaza de Toros" and other centers within the capital.

The Spanish government has "requisitioned the prominent hotels" for the visiting royalty and envoys.  Other hotels are charging $25.00 per day.  Princes for "everything: have been  become exorbitant.

The royal palace is a the "scene of constant receptions" for the arriving delegations.  Three saloons in the palace are filled with the daily arrival of more wedding gifts.  Princess Ena's gift to her fiance is an "exquisite jeweled sword," designed in Toldeo.

The American minister,  Mr. Collier, will host several "brilliant" banquets.

Princess Ena will travel on May 24 to France on board a British warship. She proceed "by special train to the Spanish frontier" where she will be greeted by King Alfonso, Premier Moret, and the Foreign Minister, the Duke of Almodovar.  The Princess will stay at the Pardo Palace.

On the morning of the wedding, Princess Ena will get into the "famous tortoise-shell coach drawn by eight white horses with gilded harnesses and white plumes."  The bride's party will meet the bridegroom's cortege at the Plaza Oriente, and they will "proceed together to the Church of San Geronimo."

The arrangements for the procession, the wedding and the festivals is said to be on the "scale of the greatest splendor."

Wednesday, May 18, 2016

Tsarevich to Marry Princess Elena

May 18, 1891

The Vienna correspondent for The Times states that "a marriage has been arranged" between the Tsarevich Nicholas of Russia and Princess Elena, the fourth daughter of Prince Nicholas of Montenegro, reports the Washington Post.

The correspondent commented: "Such a marriage would be of great political importance and could not fail to give the highest satisfaction to the Pan-Slavist world."

Nicholas, the heir apparent, to the Russian throne, is the eldest son of Alexander III and his Danish-born wife, Marie.   He is celebrating his 23rd birthday today.

Princess Elena is 18 years old.  Two of her older sisters are already living in Russia.  Princess Militza is married to Grand Duke Peter of Russia, and Princess Anastasia is the wife of Prince George, Duke of Leuchtenberg.

A king for Croatia

May 18, 1941

Croatia has a new King:  Prince Aimone, Duke of Spoleto, reports the New York Times. He is the younger son of the late Duke of Aosta and Princess Helene of France.  His older brother, Prince Amedeo, is the present Duke of Aosta.

The King of Croatia, who is 41 years old, was educated at Italy's Naval Academy.  H received the rank of ensign, and was "just old enough to serve in the Italian air corps in the latter months of the World War."

An accomplished motor boat racer, the Duke married Princess Irene of Greece and Denmark in July 1939.  The wedding guests included King Vittorio Emanuele of Italy and King George of Greece, who is the bride's brother; King Ferdinand of Bulgaria and King Alfonso XIII of Spain.  The Duchess of Kent, a cousin of the bride, flew to Florence, to attend the wedding.

Princess Irene, who is expected to become the Queen Consort of Croatia, is the second daughter of the late King Constantine and Queen Sophie of the Hellenes.  She has lived in Italy since her father's abdication in 1922.   Her older sister, Princess Helen, is the former wife of King Carol II of Romania.

Sunday, May 15, 2016

Offering a few articles

I am often asked how someone can read my articles -- the published ones -- as the articles are not online.  One can order copies of the journals or have a subscription, but this is not an option for everyone.

I have decided to make available three articles for purchase through Paypal.  The articles will be sent to you by mail (not email), and the price includes the postage.    Each article is $10.00.

Young Affie Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1874-1899)  This is a 2 part article

Prince Maurice of Battenberg

The marriage of Princess Viktoria Luise of Prussia and Prince Ernst August of Hanover.

All three articles

Duke of Castro adopts gender equal succession

Duke of Castro abolishes Salic Law.

The Royal House of Bourbon Two Sicilies would like to make the following announcement:
His Royal Highness Prince Charles of Bourbon Two Sicilies, Duke of Castro, Head of the Royal House makes public his decision to change the rules of succession which have thus far been in force in the House of Bourbon Two Sicilies in order to make them compatible with international and European law which prohibits any discrimination between men and women, not only in the enjoyment of their rights and freedoms but also in the exercise of public office of any kind.
The rule of absolute primogeniture will henceforth apply to his direct descendants.
The official Act is as follows:
WE, Charles of Bourbon Two Sicilies, Duke of Castro, Head of the Royal House of Bourbon Two Sicilies, Grand Master of the Dynastic Orders; Whereas the Royal Families of Europe currently ruling have finally abandoned, in order to comply with the principle of equality between men and women as part of the foundation of international and European law, the principle called the "Salic law", which excludes daughters from the order of succession, the majority of them have adopted the rule of succession of absolute primogeniture;
Whereas the Real House of Bourbon Two Sicilies must, if it aspires to be able to claim to recover its sovereignty and to exercise it in accordance with the law and the principles recognized by the International community, hereby adopts in turn a rule of succession which conforms to this law;
WE decide:
Article 1: The order of hereditary succession to the Royal House of Bourbon of Two Sicilies is amended with the aim of introducing a strict equality between men and women.
Article 2: The principle of absolute primogeniture is replaced in any rule of former succession.
Article 3: This new order of succession is applicable for the first time to our descendants.
Article 4: The rules and statutes of all dynastic orders referring to the Royal House of Bourbon Two Sicilies will be amended accordingly.

Rome, 12 May 2016

This sounds like the Duke of Castro has reneged on his agreement with the Duke of Calabria regarding the reconciliation of the two branches of the Bourbon-Two Sicilies family.

By making this declaration,  the Duke makes it clear that the Bourbon-Two Sicilies dynasty, which was established by the Treaty of Vienna (1737), the Treaty of Naples (1759) and the Pragmatic Decree of Carlos III (1759.)  The succession was also defined by the Constitution of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, which remained in force until 1861, following Two Sicilies joining the new Italian state.

There are also religious issues as the succession to Grand Mastership of the Constantinian Order has been governed by the Papal Brief Sincerare Fidei of 1699 and Roman Catholic canon law.   The Roman Catholic Church is unlikely to change its rules to allow women to become priests or bishops, which means that a woman cannot become the head of the Constantinian Order.

From what I understand, only the Pope can change the succession to the Grand Mastership of the Order.  This appears unlikely.

The Duke of Calabria remains bound to the agreement signed in Naples in January 2014, a story that I broke here on Royal Musings.


The announcement was made following the confirmation of the Duke of Castro's two daughters, Princess Maria Carolina, Duchess of Palermo, and Princess Maria Chiara, Duchess of Capri.    Maria Carolina will celebrate her 13th birthday in June.  Maria Chiara was 11 in January.


Friday, May 13, 2016

Catching up on news

May 13, 1896

The Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, the Duchess Marie of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, and the Duke of Cambridge will attend a performance tonight of La Favorita at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden.

The Grand Duchess was born Princess Augusta of Cambridge and is the Duke of Cambridge's sister.  Duchess Marie is her elder granddaughter.

The condition of Archduke Karl Ludwig of Austria, a brother of Emperor Franz Josef, beginning to "cause concern," according to a telegram from the Times' Vienna correspondent.    The "internal malady" from which he suffers is now "complicated by a great weakness."  Empress Elisabeth visited the archduke earlier today, and "remained with him for some time."

Prince George hailed for saving life of Tsarevitch

May 13, 1891

St. Petersburg newspapers are full of warm praise for the "gallantry of Prince George of Greece," the companion of Tsarevitch Nicholas, heir to the Russia throne.  The two young men, who are first cousins, were traveling together in Otsu, Japan, when Nicholas was attacked.    Prince George felled Nicholas' assailant, and, thus, saved his life, reports the New York Times.

The newspapers note that the Russian people will never forget Prince George's bravery and his actions.

There was much concern in the city about the Tsarevitch's condition, and "great rejoicing" when it was announced that he had not been "dangerously wounded."

The first reports from Japan were "exaggerated," and there was a "decided feeling of relief" when it became known that the heir had not been killed.

When Nicholas' mother, Empress Marie received word of the would be "murderous attack" on her son, she exclaimed: "He is dead. You are hiding the truth from me," and then she "fell into a faint."